The Influence of Iron-Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) Therapy on Clinical Outcomes and Healthcare Resource Consumptions in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Affected by IDA: A Real-Word Evidence Study among the Italian Population

Anaemia is a uraemia-related complication frequently found in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients, with iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) as the main underlying mechanism. Given the suboptimal anaemia management in ND-CKD patients with a co-diagnosis of IDA, this study evaluated the role of IDA therapy on clinical outcomes and healthcare resource consumptions in an Italian clinical setting. A retrospective observational real-world analysis was performed on administrative databases of healthcare entities, covering around 6.9 million health-assisted individuals. From January 2010 to March 2019, ND-CKD patients were included and diagnosed with IDA in the presence of two low-haemoglobin (Hb) measurements. Patients were divided into IDA-treated and untreated, based on the prescription of iron [Anatomical-Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code B03A] or anti-anaemia preparations (ATC code B03X), and evaluated during a 6-month follow-up from the index date [first low haemoglobin (Hb) detection]. IDA treatment resulted in significantly decreased incidence of all cause-related, cardiovascular-related, and IDA-related hospitalizations (treated vs. untreated: 44.5% vs. 81.8%, 12.3% vs. 25.3%, and 16.2% vs. 26.2%, respectively, p < 0.001). A healthcare direct cost estimation showed that overall mean expenditure per patient reduced by 47% with IDA treatment (5245€ vs. 9918€, p < 0.001), mainly attributable to hospitalizations (3767€ vs. 8486€, p < 0.001). This real-life analysis on Italian ND-CKD-IDA patients indicates that IDA therapy administration provides significant benefits in terms of patients’ clinical outcomes and healthcare cost savings.